In the case of the child with ADHD, the teacher might give the child some strategies to stop screaming out answers in class.
What causes students to behave this way?
The teacher might try positive behavior reinforcement. For example, every time the child raises his hand before giving the teacher an answer, she could reward the child in some way, such as allowing him to be her helper when she passes out papers to the students in class or giving him extra minutes of free reading time. After using these strategies to cut down on the student's negative behaviors, the teacher would once again measure how often the child blurts out answers instead of waiting to be called on in class. After using behavior modification strategies, the teacher finds that the child now only blurts out answers in class about five times a day.
This lets the educator know that her intervention plan is working. If the child continued to blurt out answers 11 times per day, the same amount he did when she took the baseline measurement of his behavior, the teacher would know that she needs to come up with a different intervention method to correct the child's behavior.
Teachers and parents should consider alternatives when a behavior modification plan goes awry. Instead of using positive reinforcement alone to reduce the number of outbursts the child with ADHD has in class, perhaps the child also needs to face negative consequences for his outbursts. The teacher may determine that other modifications may need to be made to help the student's behavior problems.
Moving the child away from a particular student may help if it's determined that the classmate is egging the child on. Or perhaps the child is seated in the back of the classroom and feels that shouting is the only way for him to be heard. Learn the best ways to manage stress and negativity in your life. More in ADHD. The founding of the Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis in served as an important marker for this period of growth. The development, application, and expanded use of research strategies associated with applied behavior analysis served as a catalyst for the systematic study of behavioral procedures in classrooms.
Referred to as single-subject or single-case experimental designs, these approaches allow researchers to examine the impact of interventions on individual students. Continuous assessment demands repeated observations of the dependent measure, typically accomplished by daily observations. The establishment of stable baseline levels of performance is crucial to any further effort to determine whether the manipulation of the independent variable has a functional effect on the dependent variable.
Stability in this case implies that the rate at which the targeted behavior occurs is essentially flat or shows a clear trend of deterioration during the baseline phase.
If researchers are confident that repeated observations of behavior during a baseline phase show a stable or worsening trend in behavior, the introduction of the intervention in question can then be evaluated in the context of a number of different single-case designs. We describe and provide examples from the empirical literature of the four single-case experimental research designs most commonly used in behavioral research: reversal designs, multiple baseline designs, changing criterion designs, and multielement or alternating treatment designs.
The ABAB or reversal design is perhaps the simplest single-case experimental design. While improvement in behavior during the intervention phase provides some evidence of a treatment effect, the strength of this inference is increased dramatically if a second demonstration occurs during the reversal phase. In nearly all experimental situations, a reintroduction of the intervention B 2 is called for, not only because it allows a stronger demonstration of the functionality of the intervention, but because it is consistent with the goals of applied behavior analysis, which include fostering positive behavior change.
Powell and Nelson provided an example of a reversal design in which an intervention consisting of assignment choice was evaluated using a reversal ABAB design with a second grade student who was diagnosed with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder ADHD.
During baseline, the student participated with his classmates by completing the same assignment given to the entire class, but was found to display high rates of undesirable behavior, defined as noncompliance, being away from his desk, disturbing others, or simply not doing his work. The intervention, assignment choice, consisted of the teacher offering the student a choice from among three appropriate assignments taken directly from the class curriculum during language arts periods.
As can be seen in Fig. Figure 3. Example of an ABAB or reversal design. From Powell, S. Effects of choosing academic assignments on a student with attention deficit-hyperactivity disorder. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 30, — Reprinted with permission. Multiple baseline designs allow repeated demonstrations of a functional relationship between independent and dependent variables without necessarily invoking a reversal or withdrawal of the intervention.
This is especially useful when a return to baseline is either impossible in the case where learning has occurred or unethical in the case where a destructive or dangerous behavior has been reduced with an intervention. In a multiple baseline design, the researcher establishes two or more baselines before implementing an intervention phase. These baselines may be for different participants multiple baseline across subjects design , for different behaviors displayed by the same subject multiple baseline across behaviors design , or for the display of a behavior in different settings multiple baseline across settings design.
The intervention is then implemented in a staggered fashion across these multiple baselines. That is, the intervention will be implemented at different points in time for each participant, behavior, or setting. To the degree that an observed dependent variable targeted for change improves when and only when the intervention is introduced to that subject or behavior or setting , the case for a functional relationship is enhanced.
The intervention consisted of showing students a prepared videotape of their voluntary hand-raising in response to questions asked by the teacher during large-group instruction. In preparing the videotapes, students had been prompted to raise their hands, but the prompts were edited out of the videotapes used during intervention, so that the students appeared to be raising their hands spontaneously when teachers asked general questions of the group. As shown in Fig.
The implementation of intervention at three different points in time helps to rule out alternative explanations for behavior change such as changes in teacher behavior, routine, or curriculum , and in this case offers three replications of treatment effect for this intervention. Example of multiple baseline across subjects design. From Hartley, E. Self-modeling as an intervention to increase student classroom participation.go to site
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Psychology in the Schools, 35 4 , — A second common application of the multiple baseline design involves a single participant, but multiple settings. Fabiano and Pelham used a multiple baseline across settings design to evaluate the effects of three simple changes to an existing behavior management plan for a third-grade student diagnosed with ADHD who was reported by his regular classroom teacher to display high rates of disruptive, noncompliant classroom behavior.
A less common application of the multiple baseline design involves applying a particular intervention across multiple behaviors of a single student.
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While Magee and Ellis suggested that the extinction intervention itself may have contributed to higher rates of the subsequent behaviors i. Although the scope of behaviors to which it can be applied is somewhat limited Rusch et al. The essential feature of the changing criterion design is that the intervention phase is divided into a number of subphases that have increasingly rigorous criteria for the dependent measure. Treatment is implemented with the goal of moving baseline levels of performance to an initial criterion level; once criterion is reached for a predetermined number of days or sessions, the subsequent phase begins with a more stringent criterion.
Such designs may be particularly suited to negative behaviors that occur at a high rate and need to be gradually reduced Rusch et al. Deitz and Repp used a changing criterion design to successfully decrease inappropriate talking in a high school classroom. Within this design, the criterion was lowered each week, requiring that students meet a more stringent standard to earn the reinforcer.
As can be seen in the figure, the reinforcement program, known as differential reinforcement of low rates DRL Kazdin, , resulted in a systematic decrease in the targeted behavior across these phases, as well as an increase in the negative talking when the program was withdrawn with a return to baseline. Example of a changing criterion design. From Deitz, S. Decreasing classroom misbehavior through the use of DRL schedules of reinforcement. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 6, — The multielement or alternating treatments design is used when researchers wish to evaluate the relative effects of two interventions in a single experimental phase, something that is not possible in other single-case designs.
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In the alternating treatments design, the baseline phase is followed by an intervention phase in which the two interventions are applied at different times e. To enhance the analysis of a functional relationship, the treatments are also balanced across the intervention phase so that neither occurs consistently first, nor always under the same conditions.
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McQuillan, DuPaul, Shapiro, and Cole used an alternating treatments design to examine the relative effects of two forms of a self-management intervention and a teacher-evaluation intervention on the mathematics performance and time on task of three adolescent students with behavior disorders see Fig. After seven days of baseline, during which the teacher-evaluation management system already in use in the school remained in effect, an alternating treatments phase was implemented in which the teacher-evaluation system and the two forms of self-management were counterbalanced across daily sessions.
Following three weeks of this phase, the optimal condition self-evaluation was implemented in a subsequent phase. Example of an alternating treatments or multielement design. McQuillan, G. DuPaul, E. Shapiro, and C.
Cole Journal of Emotional and Behavioral Disorders, 4, — We have touched briefly on the extensive literature base underlying a behavioral approach to classroom management and have also noted that a research-to-practice gap plagues classroom management just as it does all of education. Some writers have suggested that as a field we really do not know all that we purport to know about how to teach and manage behavior e. Three issues seem to be at the heart of concerns about the behavioral view of classroom management: a generalization, b concerns about coercion and bribery, and c ethical concerns about the potential for misuse of behavioral operations.
The failure of researchers to produce treatment effects that routinely generalize to other settings, times, and responses has been a sharp and essentially legitimate criticism of behavioral programming since its early application to classroom settings. Even when teachers experience great success in fostering positive change in important academic and social behavior in one context or setting, there is no guarantee that effects will generalize across time maintenance , or to other settings or responses. In what is probably the classic treatment of the problems associated with generalization, Stokes and Baer reviewed scores of studies and described nine generalization promotion strategies that researchers reported using.
These included such strategies as program common stimuli , in which elements of the new environment tasks, materials, trainers, directions, etc. Unfortunately, train and hope , essentially a failure to program for generalization, was noted as a common strategy in the literature reviewed. In essence, the criticism that behavioral operations do not produce generalizable effects was shown to be true by default; if educators do not actively program for generalization in their interventions, as often appears to be the case, then generalization will be lacking.
But as a number of authors have since summarized, active programming for generalization using among other strategies those noted by Stokes and Baer can result in generalized responding e. Ducharme and Holborn , for example, used prompting, modeling, and verbal praise with preschoolers with hearing impairments to teach social interaction skills such as sharing, cooperating, or assisting other children. While the skills were learned and displayed successfully by the children in their preschool training setting, these newly learned skills did not generalize to other teachers, children, or play settings.
Ducharme and Holborn used two generalization promotion strategies to engender such transfer. First, they trained sufficient exemplars by using multiple and different play activities games , different teachers, and several different peers during their training of the targeted social skills. Second, they introduced children to natural contingencies , by systematically fading the teacher praise used initially to teach the new behaviors.
These strategies resulted in generalized responding in a different setting with new peers, teachers, and play activities even with no additional prompting or reinforcement, such as that used in the initial training. The larger remaining challenge for behavioral researchers lies in making sure that behavioral interventions routinely include explicit programming for generalization. Rusch et al. As should be obvious, though, failure to generalize calls into question the true worth of any contextually limited behavior change.
Among the more frequent criticisms of the behavioral view of classroom management are concerns that teachers become too controlling, and merely coerce or bribe students to behave in ways that the teacher chooses. That said, even behavioral procedures as innocuous as contingent teacher attention are subject to misuse, but this is not different from the teacher who does not use proper and scientifically sound literacy research to guide instruction for emergent readers.
Related Emotional Behaviour Deficit and Behavioural modification strategy: Behavioural modification strategy
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